Network Address Translation (NAT) Behavioral Requirements for the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
Author(s): R. Denis-Courmont
This document defines a set of requirements for NATs handling the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP). These requirements allow DCCP applications, such as streaming applications, to operate consistently, and they are very similar to the TCP requirements for NATs,...
Network Working Group R. Denis-Courmont Request for Comments: 5597 VideoLAN project BCP: 150 September 2009 Category: Best Current Practice Network Address Translation (NAT) Behavioral Requirements for the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol Abstract This document defines a set of requirements for NATs handling the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP). These requirements allow DCCP applications, such as streaming applications, to operate consistently, and they are very similar to the TCP requirements for NATs, which have already been published by the IETF. Ensuring that NATs meet this set of requirements will greatly increase the likelihood that applications using DCCP will function properly. Status of This Memo This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Copyright and License Notice Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the BSD License. This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November 10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may Denis-Courmont Best Current Practice [Page 1] RFC 5597 NAT DCCP Requirements September 2009 not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other than English. Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3. Applicability Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4. DCCP Connection Initiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5. NAT Session Refresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6. Application-Level Gateways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 7. Other Requirements Applicable to DCCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 8. Requirements Specific to DCCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 9. DCCP without NAT Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. Introduction For historical reasons, NAT devices are not typically capable of handling datagrams and flows for applications that use the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) [RFC4340]. This memo discusses the technical issues involved and proposes a set of requirements for NAT devices to handle DCCP in a way that enables communications when either or both of the DCCP endpoints are located behind one or more NAT devices. All definitions and requirements in [RFC4787] are inherited here. The requirements are otherwise designed similarly to those in [RFC 5382], from which this memo borrows its structure and much of its content. Note however that, if both endpoints are hindered by NAT devices, the normal model for DCCP of asymmetric connection will not work. A simultaneous-open must be performed, as in [RFC5596]. Also, a separate, unspecified mechanism may be needed, such as Unilateral Self Address Fixing (UNSAF) [RFC3424] protocols, if an endpoint needs to learn its own external NAT mappings. 2. Definitions The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC 2119]. Denis-Courmont Best Current Practice [Page 2] RFC 5597 NAT DCCP Requirements September 2009 This document uses the term "DCCP connection" to refer to individual DCCP flows, as uniquely identified by the quadruple (source and destination IP addresses and DCCP ports) at a given time. This document uses the term "NAT mapping" to refer to a state at the NAT that is necessary for network address and port translation of DCCP connections. This document also uses the terms "endpoint- independent mapping", "address-dependent mapping", "address and port- dependent mapping", "filtering behavior", "endpoint-independent filtering", "address-dependent filtering", "address and port- dependent filtering", "port assignment", "port overloading", "hairpinning", and "external source IP address and port" as defined in [RFC4787]. 3. Applicability Statement This document applies to NAT devices that want to handle DCCP datagrams. It is not the intent of this document to deprecate the overwhelming majority of deployed NAT devices. These NATs are simply not expected to handle DCCP, so this memo is not applicable to them. Expected NAT behaviors applicable to DCCP connections are very similar to those applicable to TCP connections (with the exception of REQ-6 below). The following requirements are discussed and justified extensively in [RFC 5382]. These justifications are not reproduced here for the sake of brevity. In addition to the usual changes to the IP header (in particular, the IP addresses), NAT devices need to mangle: o the DCCP source port for outgoing packets, depending on the NAT mapping, o the DCCP destination port for incoming packets, depending on the NAT mapping, and o the DCCP checksum, to compensate for IP address and port number modifications. Because changing the source or destination IP address of a DCCP packet will normally invalidate the DCCP checksum, it is not possible to use DCCP through a NAT without dedicated support. Some NAT devices are known to provide "generic" transport-protocol support, whereby only the IP header is mangled. That scheme is not sufficient to support DCCP. Denis-Courmont Best Current Practice [Page 3] RFC 5597 NAT DCCP Requirements September 2009 4. DCCP Connection Initiation 4.1. Address and Port Mapping Behavior A NAT uses a mapping to translate packets for each DCCP connection. A mapping is dynamically allocated for connections initiated from the internal side, and is potentially reused for certain subsequent connections. NAT behavior regarding when a mapping can be reused differs for different NATs, as described in [RFC4787]. REQ-1: A NAT MUST have an "Endpoint-Independent Mapping" behavior for DCCP. 4.2. Established Connections REQ-2: A NAT MUST support all valid sequences of DCCP packets (defined in [RFC4340] and its updates) for connections initiated both internally as well as externally when the connection is permitted by the NAT. In particular, in addition to handling the DCCP 3-way handshake mode of connection initiation, A NAT MUST handle the DCCP simultaneous-open mode of connection initiation, defined in [RFC5596]. That mode updates DCCP by adding a new packet type: DCCP- Listen. The DCCP-Listen packet communicates the information necessary to uniquely identify a DCCP session. NATs may utilise the connection information (address, port, Service Code) to establish local forwarding state. 4.3. Externally Initiated Connections REQ-3: If application transparency is most important, it is RECOMMENDED that a NAT have an "Endpoint-independent filtering" behavior for DCCP. If a more stringent filtering behavior is most important, it is RECOMMENDED that a NAT have an "Address-dependent filtering" behavior for DCCP. o The filtering behavior MAY be an option configurable by the administrator of the NAT. o The filtering behavior for DCCP MAY be independent of the filtering behavior for any other transport-layer protocol, such as UDP, UDP-Lite, TCP, and SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol). REQ-4: A NAT MUST wait for at least 6 seconds from the reception of an unsolicited, inbound DCCP-Listen or DCCP-Sync packet before it may respond with an ICMP Port Unreachable error, an ICMP Protocol Unreachable error, or a DCCP-Reset. If, during this interval, the NAT receives and translates an outbound DCCP-Request packet for the Denis-Courmont Best Current Practice [Page 4] RFC 5597 NAT DCCP Requirements September 2009 connection, the NAT MUST silently drop the original unsolicited, inbound DCCP-Listen packet. Otherwise, the NAT SHOULD send an ICMP Port Unreachable error (Type 3, Code 3) for the original DCCP-Listen unless the security policy forbids it. 5. NAT Session Refresh The "established connection idle-timeout" for a NAT is defined as the minimum time a DCCP connection in the established phase must remain idle before the NAT considers the associated session a candidate for removal. The "transitory connection idle-timeout" for a NAT is defined as the minimum time a DCCP connection in the CLOSEREQ or CLOSING phases must remain idle before the NAT considers the associated session a candidate for removal. DCCP connections in the TIMEWAIT state are not affected by the "transitory connection idle- timeout". REQ-5: If a NAT cannot determine whether the endpoints of a DCCP connection are active, it MAY abandon the session if it has been idle for some time. Where a NAT implements session timeouts, the default value of the "established connection idle-timeout" MUST be of 124 minutes or longer, and the default value of the "transitory connection idle-timeout" MUST be of 4 minutes or longer. A NAT that implements session timeouts may be configurable to use smaller values for the NAT idle-timeouts. NAT behavior for handling DCCP-Reset packets or connections in the TIMEWAIT state is left unspecified. 6. Application-Level Gateways Contrary to TCP, DCCP is a loss-tolerant protocol. Therefore, modifying the payload of DCCP packets may present a significant additional challenge in maintaining any application-layer state needed for an Application Level Gateway (ALG) to function properly. Additionally, there are no known DCCP-capable ALGs at the time of writing this document. REQ-6: If a NAT includes ALGs, these ALGs MUST NOT affect DCCP. NOTE: This is not consistent with REQ-6 of [RFC 5382]. 7. Other Requirements Applicable to DCCP A list of general and UDP-specific NAT behavioral requirements are described in [RFC4787]. A list of ICMP-specific NAT behavioral requirements are described in [RFC5508]. The requirements listed Denis-Courmont Best Current Practice [Page 5] RFC 5597 NAT DCCP Requirements September 2009 below reiterate the requirements from these two documents that directly affect DCCP. The following requirements do not relax any requirements in [RFC4787] or [RFC5508]. 7.1. Port Assignment REQ-7: A NAT MUST NOT have a "Port assignment" behavior of "Port overloading" for DCCP. 7.2. Hairpinning Behavior REQ-8: A NAT MUST support "hairpinning" for DCCP. Furthermore, a NAT's hairpinning behavior MUST be of type "External source IP address and port". 7.3. ICMP Responses to DCCP Packets REQ-9: If a NAT translates DCCP, it SHOULD translate ICMP Destination Unreachable (Type 3) messages. REQ-10: Receipt of any sort of ICMP message MUST NOT terminate the NAT mapping or DCCP connection for which the ICMP was generated. 8. Requirements Specific to DCCP 8.1. Partial Checksum Coverage DCCP supports partial checksum coverage. A NAT will usually need to perform incremental changes to the packet Checksum field, as for other IETF-defined protocols. However, if it needs to recalculate a correct checksum value, it must take the checksum coverage into account, as described in Section 9.2 of [RFC4340]. REQ-11: If a NAT translates a DCCP packet with a valid DCCP checksum, it MUST ensure that the DCCP checksum is translated such that it is valid after the translation. REQ-12: A NAT MUST NOT modify the value of the DCCP Checksum Coverage. The Checksum Coverage field in the DCCP header determines the parts of the packet that are covered by the Checksum field. This always includes the DCCP header and options, but some or all of the application data may be excluded as determined on a packet-by-packet basis by the application. Changing the Checksum Coverage in the network violates the integrity assumptions at the receiver and may result in unpredictable or incorrect application behaviour. Denis-Courmont Best Current Practice [Page 6] RFC 5597 NAT DCCP Requirements September 2009 8.2. Services Codes DCCP specifies a Service Code as a 4-byte value (32 bits) that describes the application-level service to which a client application wishes to connect [RFC4340]. REQ-13: If a NAT translates a DCCP packet, it MUST NOT modify its DCCP Service Code value. Further guidance on the use of Service Codes by middleboxes, including NATs, can be found in [RFC5595]. 9. DCCP without NAT Support If the NAT device cannot be updated to support DCCP, DCCP datagrams can be encapsulated within a UDP transport header. Indeed, most NAT devices are already capable of handling UDP. This is however beyond the scope of this document. 10. Security Considerations [RFC4787] discusses security considerations for NATs that handle IP and unicast (UDP) traffic, all of which apply equally to this document. Security concerns specific to handling DCCP packets are discussed in this section. REQ-1 and REQ-6 through REQ-13 do not introduce any new known security concerns. REQ-2 does not introduce any new known security concerns. While a NAT may elect to keep track of some DCCP-specific, per-flow state (compared to UDP), it has no obligations to do so. REQ-3 allows a NAT to adopt either a more secure or a more application-transparent filtering policy. This is already addressed in [RFC4787] and [RFC 5382]. Similar to [RFC 5382], REQ-4 of this document recommends that a NAT respond to unsolicited, inbound Listen and Sync packets with an ICMP error delayed by a few seconds. Doing so may reveal the presence of a NAT to an external attacker. Silently dropping the Listen makes it harder to diagnose network problems and forces applications to wait for the DCCP stack to finish several retransmissions before reporting an error. An implementer must therefore understand and carefully weigh the effects of not sending an ICMP error or rate-limiting such ICMP errors to a very small number. Denis-Courmont Best Current Practice [Page 7] RFC 5597 NAT DCCP Requirements September 2009 REQ-5 recommends that a NAT that passively monitors DCCP state keep idle sessions alive for at least 124 minutes or 4 minutes, depending on the state of the connection. To protect against denial-of-service attacks filling its state storage capacity, a NAT may attempt to actively determine the liveliness of a DCCP connection, or the NAT administrator could configure more conservative timeouts. 11. Acknowledgments The author would like to thank Gorry Fairhurst, Eddie Kohler, Dan Wing, Alfred Hoenes, Magnus Westerlund, Miguel Garcia, Catherine Meadows, Tim Polk, Lars Eggert, and Christian Vogt for their comments and help on this document. This memo borrows heavily from [RFC 5382] by S. Guha (editor), K. Biswas, B. Ford, S. Sivakumar, and P. Srisuresh. 12. References 12.1. Normative References [RFC 2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC4340] Kohler, E., Handley, M., and S. Floyd, "Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)", RFC4340, March 2006. [RFC4787] Audet, F. and C. Jennings, "Network Address Translation (NAT) Behavioral Requirements for Unicast UDP", BCP 127, RFC4787, January 2007. [RFC5508] Srisuresh, P., Ford, B., Sivakumar, S., and S. Guha, "NAT Behavioral Requirements for ICMP", BCP 148, RFC5508, April 2009. [RFC5596] Fairhurst, G., "Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) Simultaneous-Open Technique to Facilitate NAT/ Middlebox Traversal", RFC5596, September 2009. 12.2. Informative References [RFC3424] Daigle, L. and IAB, "IAB Considerations for UNilateral Self-Address Fixing (UNSAF) Across Network Address Translation", RFC3424, November 2002. [RFC 5382] Guha, S., Biswas, K., Ford, B., Sivakumar, S., and P. Srisuresh, "NAT Behavioral Requirements for TCP", BCP 142, RFC 5382, October 2008. Denis-Courmont Best Current Practice [Page 8] RFC 5597 NAT DCCP Requirements September 2009 [RFC5595] Fairhurst, G., "The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) Service Codes", RFC5595, September 2009. Author's Address Remi Denis-Courmont VideoLAN project EMail: email@example.com URI: http://www.videolan.org/ Denis-Courmont Best Current Practice [Page 9]