Multicast state damping
Author(s): Jeffrey Zhang, Keyur Patel, Robert Kebler, Stephane Litkowski, Thomas Morin
This document describes procedures to damp multicast routing state changes and prevent the churn due to the multicast dynamicity at the edge of a network. The procedures described in this document help avoid uncontrolled control plane load increase...
Network Working Group T. Morin, Ed. Internet-Draft S. Litkowski Expires: January 16, 2014 Orange K. Patel Cisco Systems J. Zhang R. Kebler Juniper Networks July 15, 2013 Multicast state damping draft-morin-multicast-damping-00 Abstract This document describes procedures to damp multicast routing state changes and prevent the churn due to the multicast dynamicity at the edge of a network. The procedures described in this document help avoid uncontrolled control plane load increase on the core routing infrastructure. New procedures are proposed inspired from BGP unicast route damping principles, but adapted to multicast. They cover multicast and multicast in VPNs contexts. Requirements Language The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC 2119]. Status of this Memo This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." This Internet-Draft will expire on January 16, 2014. Copyright Notice Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 1] Internet-Draft Multicast state damping July 2013 Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4. Existing mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4.1. Rate-limiting of multicast control traffic . . . . . . . . 4 4.2. Existing PIM, IGMP and MLD timers . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4.3. BGP Route Damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5. Procedures for multicast state damping . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6. Procedures for multicast in IP VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6.1. Damping P-tunnel change events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7. Procedures for Ethernet VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8. Operational considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8.1. Enabling and configuring multicast damping . . . . . . . . 10 8.2. Troubleshooting and monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8.3. Maximum values for exponential decay and thresholds parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8.4. Default values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 2] Internet-Draft Multicast state damping July 2013 1. Introduction When multicast receivers join and leave a said multicast group or channel at the edge of a network through multicast membership control protocols (IGMP, MLD), multicast routing protocols (e.g. PIM-SM, or mVPN) adjust multicast routing states accordingly to forward or prune multicast traffic to these receivers. Mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure that the load put on the control plane of core routers remains under control regardless of the frequency at which multicast memberships changes are made by end hosts. By nature multicast memberships change based on the behavior of multicast applications running on end hosts, hence the frequency of membership changes can legitimately be much higher than the typical churn of unicast routing states. This document describes procedures aimed at protecting the control plane of the core network infrastructure (more specifically edge routers, core routers and in the case of multicast in VPN contexts BGP Route Reflectors) while at the same time avoiding negative effects on the service provided, although at the expense of a minimal increase in average of bandwidth use in the network. The base principle is described in Section 3. Existing mechanisms that could be relied upon are discussed in Section 4. Section 5 details the proposed procedures. Sections 6 and 7 provide more specific details related to multicast in VPNs contexts. Finally, Section 8 discusses operational considerations related to the proposed mechanism. 2. Terminology TBC 3. Overview The procedures described in this document allows the network operator to configure multicast routers so that they can delay the propagation of multicast state prune messages, when faced with a rate of multicast state dynamicity exceeding a certain configurable threshold. Assuming that the number of multicast states that can be created by a receiver is bounded, delaying the propagation of multicast state pruning results in setting up an upper bound to the Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 3] Internet-Draft Multicast state damping July 2013 average frequency at which the router will send state updates to an upstream router. From the point of view of a downstream router, this approach has no impact: the multicast routing states changes that it solicits to its upstream router will be honored without any additional delay. Indeed the propagation of joins is not impacted by the proposed defined procedures, and having the upstream router delay state prune propagation to its own upstream does not affect what traffic is sent to the downstream router. In particular, the amount of bandwidth used on the link downstream to a router applying this damping technique is not increased. This approach increases the average bandwidth utilization on a link upstream to a router applying this technique: indeed, the bandwidth of a said multicast flow will be used for a longer time than if no damping was applied. That said, it is expected that this technique will allow to meet the goals of protecting the multicast routing infrastructure control plane without a significant average increase of bandwidth; for instance, damping events happening at a frequency higher than one event per X second, can be done without increasing the time during which a multicast flow is present on a link of more than X second. To be practical, such a mechanism requires configurability, in particular, needs to offer means to control when damping is triggered and allow delaying Pruning for a longer period of time the more activity there is on a multicast state. Note that the issues related to control plane load due to the dynamicity of multicast sources coming and going in the context of ASM multicast, are out of the scope of this document. 4. Existing mechanisms 4.1. Rate-limiting of multicast control traffic [RFC4609] examines multicast security threats and among other things the risk described in Section 1. A mechanism relying on rate- limiting PIM messages is proposed in section 5.3.3 [RFC4609], but has the identified drawbacks of impacting the service delivered and having side-effects on legitimate users. 4.2. Existing PIM, IGMP and MLD timers In the context of PIM multicast routing protocols (), a mechanism exists that in some context may offer a form of de facto damping Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 4] Internet-Draft Multicast state damping July 2013 mechanism for multicast states. Indeed, when active, the prune override mechanism consist in having a PIM upstream router delay for a certain time [prune override interval] before taking into account a PIM Prune message sent by a downstream neighbor. This mechanism has not been designed specifically for the purpose of damping multicast state, but as a means to allow PIM to operate on multi-access networks. See [RFC4601] section 4.3.3. However, when active, this mechanism will prevent a downstream router to produce multicast routing protocol messages for a said multicast state that would result in the upstream router to send, to its own upstream, multicast routing protocol messages at a rate higher than 1/[prune override interval]. Similarly, the IGMP and MLD multicast membership control protocols can provide under the right conditions a similar behavior. These mechanisms are not considered suitable to meet the goals spelled out in Section 1, the main reasons being that: o when enabled these mechanisms require additional bandwidth on the local link on which the effect of a Prune is delayed o to be active, they may require disabling features that may otherwise be required or useful; one typical example is explicit tracking for IGMP/MLD or PIM o on certain implementation, would require disabling behavior that cannot be turned off o do not provide a suitable level of configurability o do not provide a way to discriminate between multicast flows based on an averaged estimation of their recent past dynamicity 4.3. BGP Route Damping The procedures defined in [RFC2439] for BGP route flap damping are useful for operators who want to control the impact of unicast route churn on the routing infrastructure, and offer a standardized set of parameters to control damping. These procedures are not directly relevant in a multicast context, for the following reasons: o they are not specified for multicast routing protocol in general Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 5] Internet-Draft Multicast state damping July 2013 o even in contexts where BGP routes are used to carry multicast routing states (e.g. [RFC6514]), these procedures do not allow to implement the principle described in this document, the main reason being that a damped route becomes suppressed, while the target behavior would be to keep advertising when damping is triggered on a multicast route However, the set of parameters standardized to control the thresholds of the exponential decay mechanism can be relevantly reused. This is the approach proposed for the procedures described in this document (Section 5). Motivations for doing so is to help the network operator deploy this feature based on consistent configuration parameter, and obtain predictable results, without the drawbacks of exposed in Section 4.1 and Section 4.2. 5. Procedures for multicast state damping This section describes procedures for multicast state damping satisfying the goals spelled out in Section 1. This section spells out procedures for (S,G) states in the PIM-SM protocol ([RFC4601] ; they apply unchanged for such states created based on multicast group management protocols (IGMP [RFC3376], MLD [RFC3810]) on downstream interfaces. How these procedures apply for any-source multicast (ASM) routing state will be covered in a further revision. The following notions introduced in [RFC2439] are reused in these procedures: figure-of-merit **a number reflecting the current estimation of past recent activity of an (S,G) multicast routing state, which evolves based on routing events related to this state and based an exponential decay algorithm ; the activation or inactivation of damping on the state is based on this number cutoff-threshold parameter value of the *figure-of-merit* over which damping is applied (configurable value) reuse-threshold parameter value of the *figure-of-merit* under which damping stops being applied (configurable value) decay-half-life parameter period of time used to control how fast is the exponential decay of the *figure-of-merit* (configurable value) Additionally to these values a configurable "*increment-factor*" parameter is introduced, that controls by how much the figure-of- merit is incremented on multicast state update events. Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 6] Internet-Draft Multicast state damping July 2013 Section Section 8.4 will propose default values for all these parameters. On reception of updated multicast membership or routing information on a downstream interface I for a said (S,G) state, that results in a change of the state of the PIM downstream state machine (see section 4.5.3 of [RFC4601]), a router implementing these procedures MUST: o apply unchanged procedures for everything relating to what multicast traffic ends up traffic being sent on downstream interfaces, including interface I o increasing the *figure-of-merit* for the (S,G) by the *increment- factor* (updating the *figure-of-merit* based on the decay algorithm must be done prior to this increment) o update the damping state for the (S,G) state: damping becomes active on the state if the recomputed *figure-of-merit* is above the configured *cutoff-threshold* o update the upstream state machine for (S,G) as per section 4.5.7 of [RFC4601], with the following change : if the state machine transitions to NotJoined state because of the reception of a PIM or IGMP/MLD message on a downstream interface (i.e. in the terminology of [RFC4601] inherited_olist(S,G) becomes NULL ), and if damping is active on the state, the router SHOULD NOT send the resulting Prune(S,G) message to its upstream neighbor ; this message MUST be sent when the damping state becomes, i.e. inactive when *figure-of-merit* decays to a value below the configured *reuse-threshold* Same techniques as the ones described in [RFC2439] can be applied to determine when the figure-of-merit value is recomputed based on the exponential decay algorithm and the configured *decay-half-life*. Given the specificity of multicast applications, it is REQUIRED for the implementation to let the operator configure the *decay-half- life* in seconds, rather than in minutes. When the recomputation is done periodically, the period should be low enough to not significantly delay the inactivation of damping on a multicast state beyond what the operator wanted to configure (i.e. for a half-life of 10s, recomputing the *figure-of-merit* each minute would result in a multicast state to remained damped for a time longer than what the parameters are supposed to command). When a (S,G) state expires, its associated *figure-of-merit* and damping state are removed as well. These procedures do interact with PIM procedures related to refreshes Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 7] Internet-Draft Multicast state damping July 2013 or expiration of multicast routing states. Indeed, PIM Prune messages triggered by the expiration of the (S,G) keep-alive timer, are not suppressed or delayed (see Section 8.3 for a discussion on why this specific aspect is not expected to impede the efficiency of damping procedures), and the reception of Join messages not causing transition of state on the downstream interface does not lead to incrementing the *figure-of-merit*. Note that these procedures do not impact the PIM assert mechanism, in particular PIM Prune messages triggered by a change of the PIM assert winner on the upstream interface, are not suppressed or delayed. Note also that no action is triggered based on the reception of PIM Prune messages (or corresponding IGMP/MLD messages) that relate to non-existing (S,G) state, in particular, no *figure-of-merit* or damping state is created in this case. 6. Procedures for multicast in IP VPNs In VPN contexts, providing isolation between customers of a shared infrastructure is a core requirement resulting in even stringent expectations with regards to risks of denial of service attacks. Procedures for multicast support in IP VPNs are described in [RFC6513] and [RFC6514] and section 16 of [RFC6514] specifically spells out the need for damping the activity of C-multicast and Leaf Auto-discovery route. The procedures described in Section 5 can be applied in the VRF PIM-SM implementation (in the "C-PIM instance"), with the corresponding action to suppressing the emission of a Prune(S,G) message being to not withdraw the C-multicast Source Tree Join (C-S,C-G) BGP route. Implementation of [RFC6513] relying on the use of PIM to carry C-multicast routing information MUST support this technique. In the context of [RFC6514] where BGP is used to distribute C-multicast routing information, an additional option consists in applying damping at the level of the BGP implementation based on existing BGP damping mechanism, applied to C-multicast Source Tree Join routes and Shared Tree Join routes (and also Leaf A-D routes - see Section 6.1), and modified to provide the same effect of procedures described in Section 5 along the following guidelines: o not withdrawing (instead of not advertising) damped routes o providing means to configure the half-life in seconds if that option is not already available Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 8] Internet-Draft Multicast state damping July 2013 o using parameters for the exponential decay that are specific to multicast, based on default values and multicast specific configuration Note that in a context where BGP Route Reflectors are used, it can be considered useful to also be able to apply damping on RRs. Additionally, for mVPN Inter-AS deployments, it can be needed to protect one AS from the dynamicity of multicast VPN routing events from other ASes. In that perspective, it is RECOMMENDED for implementations to support damping mVPN C-multicast routes directly into BGP, without relying on the PIM-SM state machine. The choice to implement damping based on BGP routes or the procedures described in Section 5, is up to the implementor, but at least one of the two MUST be implemented; keeping in mind that in contexts where damping on RRs and ASBRs the BGP approach is RECOMMENDED. Note well that damping SHOULD NOT be applied to BGP routes of the following sub-types: "Intra-AS I-PMSI A-D Route", "Inter-AS I-PMSI A-D Route", "S-PMSI A-D Route", and "Source Active A-D Route". The following sub-sections describe additional procedures providing coverage against harmful effects of high multicast membership state dynamicity specific to mVPNs, and preserving the goals spelled out in Section 1. 6.1. Damping P-tunnel change events When selective P-tunnels are used (see section 7 of [RFC6513]), the effect of updating the upstream state machine for a said (C-S,C-G) state on a PE connected to multicast receivers, is not only to generate activity to propagate C-multicast routing information to the source connected PE, but also to possibly trigger changes related to the P-tunnels carrying (C-S,C-G) traffic. Protecting the provider network for an excessive amount of change in the state of P-tunnels is required, and this section details how it can be done. A PE implementing these procedures for mVPN MUST damp Leaf A-D routes, in the same manner as it would for C-multicast routes (see Section 6). A PE implementing these procedures for mVPN MUST damp the activity related to removing itself from a P-tunnel. Possible ways to do so depend on the type of P-tunnel, and local implementation details are left up to the implementor. The following is proposed as example of how the above can be achieved. Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 9] Internet-Draft Multicast state damping July 2013 o For P-tunnels implemented with the PIM protocol, this consists in applying multicast state damping techniques describe in Section 5to the P-PIM instance, at least for (S,G) states corresponding to P-tunnels. o For P-tunnels implemented with the mLDP protocol, this consists in applying damping techniques completely similar as the one described in Section 5, but generalized to apply to mLDP states o For root-initiated P-tunnel (P-tunnels implemented with the P2MP RSVP-TE, or relying on ingress replication), no particular action needs to be implemented to damp P-tunnels membership as soon as the activity of Leaf A-D route is damped o Another possibility is to base the decision to join or not join the P-tunnel to which a said (C-S,C-G) is bound, and to advertise or not advertise a Leaf A-D route related to (C-S,C-G), based on whether or not a C-multicast Source Tree Join route is being advertised for (C-S,C-G), rather than by relying on the state of the C-PIM Upstream state machine for (C-S,C-G) 7. Procedures for Ethernet VPNs Specifications exists to support or optimize multicast and broadcast in the context of Ethernet VPNs ([I-D.ietf-l2vpn-vpls-mcast], [I-D.ietf-l2vpn-evpn]). The said specifications make use of S-PMSI and P-tunnels and for this reason, an implementation of these procedures MUST follow the procedures described in Section 6.1. 8. Operational considerations 8.1. Enabling and configuring multicast damping In the context of flat multicast routing, it is proposed that enabling this multicast damping mechanism at the edge of a network providing a multicast service, for instance at receiver-facing routers or in ASBRs, will be sufficient to address the targeted issue. Additionally, these procedures can be enabled on core routers as well. In the context of multicast VPNs, these procedures would be enabled on PE routers. Additionally in the case of C-multicast routing based on BGP extensions ([RFC6514]) these procedures can be enabled on ASBRs, and possibly Route Reflectors as well. Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 10] Internet-Draft Multicast state damping July 2013 8.2. Troubleshooting and monitoring Implementing the damping mechanisms described in this document should be complemented by appropriate tools to observe and troubleshoot damping activity. More specifically it is RECOMMENDED to complement the existing interface providing information on multicast states with information on eventual damping of corresponding states (e.g. MRIB states). In the case of mVPN this applies also to information on P-tunnels damping, and when BGP is used for C-multicast routing propagation, to BGP C-multicast routes. 8.3. Maximum values for exponential decay and thresholds parameters [TBC] 8.4. Default values [TBC] 9. IANA Considerations This document makes no request of IANA. Note to RFC Editor: this section may be removed on publication as an RFC. 10. Security Considerations The procedures defined in this document do not introduce additional security issues not already present in the contexts addressed, and actually aim at addressing some of the identified risks without introducing as much denial of service risk as some of the mechanisms already defined. The protection provided relates to the control plane of the multicast routing protocols, including the components implementing the routing protocols and the components responsible for updating the multicast forwarding plane. The procedures describe are meant to provide some level of protection for the router on which they are enabled by reducing the amount of routing state updates that it needs to send to its upstream neighbor or peers, but do not provide any reduction of the control plane load related to processing routing information from downstream neighbors. Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 11] Internet-Draft Multicast state damping July 2013 Protecting routers from an increase in control plane load due to activity on downstream interfaces toward core routers (or in the context of BGP-based mVPN C-multicast routing, BGP peers) shall rely upon the activation of damping on corresponding downstream neighbors (or BGP peers) and/or at the edge of the network. Protecting routers from an increase in control plane load due to activity on customer- facing downstream interfaces or downstream interfaces to routers in another administrative domain, is out of the scope of this document and should rely upon already defined mechanisms (see [RFC4609]). To be effective the procedures described here must be complemented by configuration limiting the number of multicast states that can be created on a multicast router through protocol interactions with multicast receivers, neighbor routers in adjacent ASes, or in multicast VPN contexts with multicast CEs. Note well that the two mechanism may interact: state for which Prune has been requested may still remain taken into account for some time if damping has been triggered and hence result in otherwise acceptable new state from being successfully created. Additionally, it is worth noting that these procedures are not meant to protect against peaks of control plane load, but only address averaged load. For instance, assuming a set of multicast states submitted to the same Join/Prune events, damping can prevent more than a certain number of Join/Prune messages to be sent upstream in the period of time that elapses between the reception of Join/Prune messages triggering the activation of damping on these states and when damping becomes inactive after decay. 11. Acknowledgements We would like to thank Bruno Decreane, Jeff Haas and Lenny Giuliano for discussions that helped shape this proposal. We would also like to thank Yakov Rekhter and Eric Rosen for their reviews and helpful comments. Thanks to Wim Henderickx for his comments and support of this proposal. 12. References 12.1. Normative References [I-D.ietf-l2vpn-evpn] Sajassi, A., Aggarwal, R., Henderickx, W., Balus, F., Isaac, A., and J. Uttaro, "BGP MPLS Based Ethernet VPN", draft-ietf-l2vpn-evpn-04 (work in progress), July 2013. Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 12] Internet-Draft Multicast state damping July 2013 [I-D.ietf-l2vpn-vpls-mcast] Aggarwal, R., Rekhter, Y., Kamite, Y., and L. Fang, "Multicast in VPLS", draft-ietf-l2vpn-vpls-mcast-14 (work in progress), July 2013. [RFC 2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC2439] Villamizar, C., Chandra, R., and R. Govindan, "BGP Route Flap Damping", RFC2439, November 1998. [RFC3376] Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A. Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 3", RFC3376, October 2002. [RFC3810] Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC3810, June 2004. [RFC4601] Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas, "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC4601, August 2006. [RFC6513] Rosen, E. and R. Aggarwal, "Multicast in MPLS/BGP IP VPNs", RFC6513, February 2012. [RFC6514] Aggarwal, R., Rosen, E., Morin, T., and Y. Rekhter, "BGP Encodings and Procedures for Multicast in MPLS/BGP IP VPNs", RFC6514, February 2012. 12.2. Informative References [RFC4609] Savola, P., Lehtonen, R., and D. Meyer, "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) Multicast Routing Security Issues and Enhancements", RFC4609, October 2006. Authors' Addresses Thomas Morin (editor) Orange 2, avenue Pierre Marzin Lannion 22307 France Email: email@example.com Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 13] Internet-Draft Multicast state damping July 2013 Stephane Litkowski Orange France Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Keyur Patel Cisco Systems 170 W. Tasman Drive San Jose, CA 95134 USA Email: email@example.com Jeffrey (Zhaohui) Zhang Juniper Networks Inc. 10 Technology Park Drive Westford, MA 01886 USA Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Robert Kebler Juniper Networks Inc. 10 Technology Park Drive Westford, MA 01886 USA Email: email@example.com Morin, et al. Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 14]