Multi-path Label Switched Paths Signaled Using RSVP-TE
Author(s): Mike Hellers, Kireeti Kompella
This document describes extensions to Resource ReSerVation Protocol - Traffic Engineering for the set up of multi-path Traffic Engineered Label Switched Paths (LSPs) in Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) and Generalized MPLS networks, i.e., LSPs that conform to...
Network Working Group K. Kompella Internet-Draft Juniper Networks Updates: 3209, 3473 (if approved) M. Hellers Intended status: Standards Track LINX Expires: January 16, 2014 July 15, 2013 Multi-path Label Switched Paths Signaled Using RSVP-TE draft-kompella-mpls-rsvp-ecmp-04.txt Abstract This document describes extensions to Resource ReSerVation Protocol - Traffic Engineering for the set up of multi-path Traffic Engineered Label Switched Paths (LSPs) in Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) and Generalized MPLS networks, i.e., LSPs that conform to traffic engineering constraints, but follow multiple independent paths from source to destination. Status of This Memo This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." This Internet-Draft will expire on January 16, 2014. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of Kompella & Hellers Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 1] Internet-Draft Multi-path RSVP-TE LSPs July 2013 the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2. Conventions used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Theory of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. Multi-path Label Switched Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2. ECMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3. Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.4. The Capabilities of TE-based Load Balancing . . . . . . . 8 3. Operation of MLSPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.1. Signaling MLSPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2. Label Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3. Bandwidth Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4. MLSP Data Plane Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1. Introduction In selecting a protocol for setting up and signaling "tunnel" Labeled Switched Paths (LSPs) in Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) networks, one first chooses whether one wants Equal Cost Multi-Path (ECMP) load balancing or Traffic Engineering (TE). For the former, one uses the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) ([RFC5036]); for the latter, the Resource ReSerVation Protocol - Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) ([RFC3209]). [Two other criteria, the need for fast protection and the desire for less configuration, are no longer the deciding factors they used to be, thanks to "IP fast reroute" ([RFC5286]) and "RSVP-TE automesh" ([RFC4972])]. Kompella & Hellers Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 2] Internet-Draft Multi-path RSVP-TE LSPs July 2013 This document describes how one can set up a tunnel LSP that has both ECMP and TE characteristics using RSVP-TE. The techniques described in this document can be used to create a "Multipath LSP" (MLSP) to a destination, that consists of several "sub-LSPs", each potentially taking a different path through the network to the destination. The techniques can also be used to create a single MLSP to multiple equivalent destinations (such as equidistant BGP nexthops announcing a common set of reachable addresses), such that each destination is served by one or more sub-LSPs. There are several alternatives to choose from when considering MLSPs. One is whether the ingress Label Switching Router (LSR) computes (or otherwise obtains) the full path for each sub-LSP, or whether LSRs along the various paths can compute paths further downstream (using techniques such as "loose hop expansion", as in [RFC5152]). Another is whether the various paths that make up the MLSP have equal cost (or distance) from ingress to egress (i.e., ECMP), whether they may have differing costs. Finally, one can choose whether to terminate a multi-path LSP on a single egress or on several equivalent egresses. For now, the first of each of these alternatives is assumed; future work can explore other choices. 1.1. Terminology The term Multipath LSP, or MLSP, will be used to denote the (logical) container LSP from an ingress LSR to one or more egress LSR(s). An MLSP is the unit of configuration and management. An MLSP consists of one or more "sub-LSPs". A sub-LSP consists of a single path from the ingress of the MLS to one of its egresses. A sub-LSP is the unit of signaling of an MLSP. An Explicit Route Object (ERO) will be used to define the path of a sub-LSP. The "downstream links" of an MLSP Z at LSR X is the union of the downstream links of all sub-LSPs of Z traversing X. Similarly, the "upstream links" of an MLSP Z at LSR X is the union of upstream links of all sub-LSPs of Z traversing X. The agent that takes the configuration parameters of a tunnel and computes the corresponding paths is called the Path Computation Agent (PCA). The PCA is responsible for acquiring the tunnel configuration, computing the paths of the sub-LSPs, and, if the PCA is not co-located with the ingress, informing the ingress about the tunnel and the EROs for the sub-LSPs. 1.2. Conventions used in this document Kompella & Hellers Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 3] Internet-Draft Multi-path RSVP-TE LSPs July 2013 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC 2119]. 2. Theory of Operation 2.1. Multi-path Label Switched Paths An MLSP is configured with various constraints associated with TE LSPs, such as destination LSR(s), bandwidth (on a per-class basis, if desired), link colors, Shared Risk Link Groups, etc. [Auto-mesh techniques ([RFC4972]) can be used to reduce configuration; this is not described further here.] In addition, parameters specifically related to MLSPs, such as how many (or the maximum number of) sub- LSPs to create, whether traffic should be split equally across sub- LSPs or not, etc. may also be specified. This configuration lives on the PCA, which is responsible for computing the paths (i.e., the EROs) for the various sub-LSPs. The PCA informs the ingress LSR about the MLSP and the constituent sub-LSPs, including EROs and bandwidths. The PCA uses the configuration parameters to decide how many sub-LSPs to compute for this MLSP, what paths they should take, and how much bandwidth each sub-LSP is responsible for. Each sub-LSP MUST meet all the constraints of the MLSP (except bandwidth). The bandwidths (per-class, if applicable) of all the sub-LSPs MUST add up to the bandwidth of the MLSP. A Path Computation Element ([RFC4655]) that is multi-path LSP-aware may be used as the PCA. Having computed (or otherwise obtained) the paths of all the sub- LSPs, the ingress A then signals the MLSP by signaling all the individual sub-LSPs across the MPLS/GMPLS network. To do this, the ingress first picks an MLSP ID, a 16-bit number that is unique in the context of the ingress. This ID is used in an ASSOCIATION object that is placed in each sub-LSP to let all transit LSRs know that the sub-LSPs belong to the same MLSP. If multiple sub-LSPs of the same MLSP pass through LSR Y, and Y has downstream links YP, YQ and YR for the various sub-LSPs, then Y has to load balance incoming traffic for the MLSP across the three downstream links in proportion to the sum of the bandwidths of the sub-LSPs going to each downstream (see Figure 1). One must distinguish carefully between the signaled bandwidth of a sub-LSP, a static value capturing the expected or maximum traffic on the sub-LSP, and the instantaneous traffic received on a sub-LSP, a constantly varying quantity. Suppose there are three sub-LSPs traversing Y, with bandwidths 10Gbps, 20Gbps and 30Gbps, going to P, Kompella & Hellers Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 4] Internet-Draft Multi-path RSVP-TE LSPs July 2013 Q and R respectively. Suppose further Y receives some traffic over each of these sub-LSPs. Y must balance this received traffic over the three downstream links YP, YQ and YR in the ratio 1:2:3. 2.2. ECMP ------------- M ----- / \ / --- P -- \ / / \ \ A --- X --- Y --- Q --- T --- B \ \ / | \ --- R ------- | \ | ------- S ---------- An example network illustrating ECMP. Assume that paths AMB, AXYPTB, AXYQTB, AXYRB and AXSB all have the same path length (cost). Figure 1: Example Network Topology In an IP or LDP network, incoming traffic arriving at A headed for B will be split equally between M and X at A. Similarly, traffic for B arriving at Y will be split equally among P, Q and R. If the traffic arriving at A for B is 120Gbps, then the AMB path will carry 60Gbps, the paths AXYPTB, AXYQTB and AXYRB will each carry 10Gbps, and the AXSB path will carry 30Gbps. We'll call this "IP-style" load balancing. Note: all load balancing is subject to the overriding requirement of mapping the same "flow" to the same downstream. (What constitutes a "flow" is beyond the scope of this document.) This requirement takes precedence over all attempts to balance traffic among downstreams. Thus, the statements above (e.g., "the AMB path will carry 60Gbps") are to be interpreted as ideal targets, not hard requirements, of load balancing. One can simulate the IP or LDP ECMP behavior with TE-based ECMP by creating an MLSP with five sub-LSPs S1 through S5 taking paths AMB, AXYPTB, AXYQTB, AXYRB and AXSB, with bandwidths 60Gbps, 10Gbps, 10Gbps, 10Gbps and 30Gbps, respectively. Kompella & Hellers Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 5] Internet-Draft Multi-path RSVP-TE LSPs July 2013 With such an arrangement, the MB link carries 60Gbps while the RB link carries just 10Gbps. If one wishes instead to carry equal amounts of traffic on the links incoming to B, then one could arrange the sub-LSPs S1 to S5 to have bandwidths 30Gbps, 15Gbps, 15Gbps, 30Gbps and 30Gbps, respectively. In this case, the bandwidth on each of the four links going to B is 30Gbps, illustrating some of the capabilities of TE-based ECMP. Staying with this example, A has one sub-LSP of bandwidth 30Gbps to M and four sub-LSPs of total bandwidth 90Gbps to X. Thus, A should load balance traffic in the ratio 1:3 between the AM and the AX links. Similarly, X has three sub-LSPs of total bandwidth 60Gbps to Y and one sub-LSP of bandwidth 30Gbps to S, so X should load balance traffic 2:1 between Y and S. Y has a sub-LSP of bandwidth 15Gbps to each of P and Q and one sub-LSP of bandwidth 30Gbps to R, so Y should load balance traffic 1:1:2 among P, Q and R, respectively. Thus, in general, TE-based ECMP does not assume equal distribution of traffic among downstream LSRs, unlike IP- or LDP-style ECMP. ---U--- | | --L-- --P-- | --V-- | / \ / \|/ \| A S---Q---T---W---B \ / \ /|\ /| --M-- --R-- | --X-- | | | ---Y--- Another example network illustrating 30 ECMP paths between A and B. Figure 2: Another Network Topology In Figure 2, there are potentially 2x3x5=30 ECMP paths between A and B. With IP or LDP, exploiting all these paths is straightforward, and doesn't need a lot of state. With an MLSP as seen so far, this would require 30 sub-LSPs to achieve equivalent load balancing. This suggests that a different approach is needed to efficiently achieve IP-style load balancing with TE LSPs. To this end, we introduce the notion of "equi-bandwidth" (EB) sub-LSPs and EB MLSPs. A sub-LSP is equi-bandwidth if its "E" bit is set (see Section 3.1). An MLSP is equi-bandwidth if all of its sub-LSPs are equi-bandwidth. If a set of EB sub-LSPs of the same MLSP traverse an LSR S, say to downstream links SP, SQ and SR, then S MUST attempt to load balance traffic received on these EB sub-LSPs equally among the links SP, SQ and SR, independent of how many sub-LSPs go over each of these links. Furthermore, S MUST redistribute traffic received from each of its Kompella & Hellers Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 6] Internet-Draft Multi-path RSVP-TE LSPs July 2013 upstream LSRs, and SHOULD redistribute all traffic received from upstream as a whole. One can do the former by signaling the same label to each of its upstream LSRs; one can do the latter by signaling the same label to all upstream LSRs (see Section 3.2). For example, in Figure 2, if L sends 12Gbps of traffic to S and M sends 18Gbps to S, S can redistribute L's traffic by sending 4Gbps to each of P, Q and R; and can similarly send 6Gbps of M's traffic to each of P, Q and R. Alternatively, S can load balance the aggregate 30Gbps of traffic received from L and M to each of P, Q and R, thus sending 10Gbps to each. EB sub-LSPs have an added benefit of not requiring unequal load balancing across links, which may pose problems for some hardware. Given the notion of EB sub-LSPs and EB MLSPs, A can signal an EB MLSP Z comprised of five EB sub-LSPs E1 through E5 with the following paths: ALSPTUB, AMSQTVB, ALSRTWB, AMSPTXB and ALSQTYB (respectively). Then, A has two downstream links for the five sub-LSPs, AL and AM, between which A will load balance equally. Similarly, S has three downstream links, SP, SQ and SR; and T has five downstreams, TU, TV, TW, TX and TY. Thus the load balancing behavior of the MLSP will replicate IP load balancing. The state required for an EB MLSP to achieve IP-style load balancing is somewhat greater than for LDP LSPs, but significantly less than that for multiple "regular" TE LSPs, or for a non-EB MLSP. 2.3. Discussion Some of the power of TE-based ECMP was illustrated in the above examples. Another is ability to request that all sub-LSPs avoid links colored red. If in the example network in Figure 1, the QT link is colored red but all other links are not, then there are four ECMP paths that satisfy these constraints, and the traffic distribution among them will naturally be different than it would without the link color constraint. One can also ask whether an MLSP with sub-LSPs is any better than N "regular" LSPs from the same ingress to the same egress. Here are some benefits of an MLSP: 1. With an MLSP, there is a single entity to provision, manage and monitor, versus N separate entities in the case of LSPs. A consequence of this is that with an MLSP, changes in topology can be dealt with easily and autonomously by the ingress LSR, by adding, changing or removing sub-LSPs to rebalance traffic, while maintaining the same TE constraints. With individual LSPs, such changes would require changes in configuration, and thus are harder to automate. Kompella & Hellers Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 7] Internet-Draft Multi-path RSVP-TE LSPs July 2013 2. An ingress LSR, knowing that an MLSP is for load balancing, can decide on an optimum number of sub-LSPs, and place them appropriately across the network to optimize load balancing. On the other hand, an ingress LSR asked to create N independent LSPs will do so without regard to whether N is a good number of equal cost paths, and, more importantly, may place several of the N LSPs on the same path, defeating the purpose of load balancing. 3. The EB sub-LSP mechanism will, in many cases, result in far fewer sub-LSPs than independent LSPs and thus less control plane state. 4. Finally, an MLSP will usually have less data plane state than N independent LSPs: whenever multiple sub-LSPs traverse a link, a single label will be used for all of them, whereas if multiple LSPs traverse a link, each will need a separate label. 2.4. The Capabilities of TE-based Load Balancing Definition: Let G=(V, E) be a directed graph (or network), and let A and B in V be two nodes in G. Let T be the traffic arriving at A destined for B. T is said to be "IP-style" load balanced if for every node X on a shortest path from A to B, the portion of T arriving at X is split equally among all nodes Yi that are adjacent to X and are on a shortest path from X to B. Theorem: An MLSP can accurately mimic IP-style load balancing between any two nodes in any network. Proof: left to the reader. Corollary: MLSPs provide a strictly more powerful load balancing mechanism than IP-style load balancing. 3. Operation of MLSPs 3.1. Signaling MLSPs Sub-LSPs of an MLSP are tied together using ASSOCIATION objects. ASSOCIATION objects have a new Association Type for MLSPs (TBD). The Association ID is chosen by the ingress of the MLSP; the Association Source is the loopback address of the ingress of the MLSP. All sub- LSPs containing an ASSOCIATION object with a given Association Source and Type belong to the same MLSP. 3.2. Label Allocation A LSR S that receives Path messages for several sub-LSPs of the same MLSP from the same upstream LSR SHOULD allocate the same label for Kompella & Hellers Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 8] Internet-Draft Multi-path RSVP-TE LSPs July 2013 all the sub-LSPs. This simplifies load balancing for the aggregate traffic on those sub-LSPs. If the sub-LSPs are EB sub-LSPs, then S SHOULD allocate the same label for all EB sub-LSPs of the same MLSP that pass through S, regardless of which upstream LSR they come from. This allows S to load balance the aggregate traffic received on the MLSP, as all the MLSP traffic arrives at S with the same label. However, an LSR that can achieve the load balancing requirements independent of label allocation strategies is free to do so. 3.3. Bandwidth Accounting Since MLSPs are traffic engineered, there needs to be strict bandwidth accounting, or admission control, on every link that an MLSP traverses. For non-EB sub-LSPs, this is straightforward, and analogous to regular TE LSPs. However, for EB sub-LSPs, two new procedures are needed, one for signaling bandwidth, and the other for admission control. First, for a given MLSP Z, an LSR X MUST ensure (via signaling) that the total incoming bandwidth of EB sub-LSPs of MLSP Z is divided equally among all the downstream links of X which at least one of the EB sub-LSPs traverses. Second, LSR X MUST ensure that, for each upstream link of X, there is sufficient bandwidth to accommodate all EB sub-LSPs of MLSP Z that traverse that link. Let's take the example of Figure 2, with MLSP Z having five EB sub- LSPs E1 to E5, and say that MLSP Z is configured with a bandwidth of 30Gbps. Here are some of the steps involved. 1. LSR A, being the ingress, has no upstream links. A has two downstream links, AL and AM. Three EB sub-LSPs of MLSP Z traverse AL, and two traverse AM. A MUST signal a total of 15Gbps for the sub-LSPs to L, and a total of 15Gbps for the sub- LSPs to M. The required bandwidth may be divided up among the sub-LSPs to L (similarly, to M) in any manner so long as the total is 15Gbps. For example, A can signal sub-LSP E1 with 15Gbps, and sub-LSPs E3 and E5 with 0 bandwidth. 2. LSR L has one upstream link AL with three EB sub-LSPs with a total bandwidth of 15Gbps. L MUST ensure that 15Gbps is available for the AL link. If this bandwidth is not available, L MUST send a PathErr on ALL of the EB sub-LSPs on the AL link. Let's assume that the AL link has sufficient bandwidth. 3. Next, it is up to L to decide how to divide the incoming 15Gbps among the three downstream EB sub-LSPs to S. Say L signals sub- LSP E1 with 15Gbps, and the others with 0 bandwidth. 4. LSR S has two upstream links: LS with three EB sub-LSPs with a total bandwidth of 15Gbps, and MS with two EB sub-LSPs with a Kompella & Hellers Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 9] Internet-Draft Multi-path RSVP-TE LSPs July 2013 total bandwidth of 15Gbps. S MUST ensure that 15Gbps is available for each of the LS and MS links. S has thus a total incoming bandwidth of 30Gbps on MLSP Z. S has to divide this equally among its downstream links SP, SQ and SR, yielding 10Gbps each. S MUST ensure that the total bandwidth requested on the SP link for sub-LSPs E1 and E4 is 10Gbps. S may choose to signal these sub-LSPs with 5Gbps each. Similarly for the SQ and SR links. There are two important points to note here. One is that the bandwidth reservation (TSpec) for a given EB sub-LSP can (and usually will) change hop-by-hop. The second is that as new EB sub-LSPs are signaled for an MLSP, the bandwidth reservations for existing EB sub- LSPs belonging to the same MLSP may have to be updated. To minimize these updates, it is RECOMMENDED that the first EB sub-LSP on a link be signaled with the total required bandwidth (as far as is known), and later sub-LSPs on the same link be signaled with 0 bandwidth. 3.4. MLSP Data Plane Actions Traffic intended to be sent over an MLSP is determined at the ingress LSR by means outside the scope of this document, and at transit LSRs by the label(s) assigned by the transit LSR to its upstream LSRs. In the case of non-EB sub-LSPs, this traffic is load balanced across downstream links in the ratio of the bandwidths of the sub-LSPs that comprise the MLSP. In the case of EB sub-LSPs, the traffic belonging to an MLSP from an upstream LSR (or better still, the aggregate traffic for the MLSP from all upstream LSRs) is load balanced equally among all downstream links. As noted above, the overriding concern is that flows are mapped to the same downstream link (except when the MLSP or some constituent sub-LSPs are changing); this is typically done by hashing fields that define a flow, and mapping hash results to different downstream LSRs. Hash-based load balancing typically assumes that the numbers of flows is sufficiently large and the bandwidth per flow is reasonably well- balanced so that the results of hashing yields reasonable traffic distribution. Entropy labels ([RFC6790] and [RFC6391]) can be used to improve load balancing at intermediate nodes. 4. Security Considerations This document introduces no new security concerns in the setup and signaling of LSPs using RSVP-TE, or in the use of the RSVP protocol. [RFC2205] specifies the message integrity mechanisms for RSVP signaling. These mechanisms apply to RSVP-TE signaling of MLSPs Kompella & Hellers Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 10] Internet-Draft Multi-path RSVP-TE LSPs July 2013 described in this document, and are highly recommended pending newer integrity mechanisms for RSVP. 5. Acknowledgments The author would like to thank the Routing Protocol group at Juniper Networks for their questions, comments and encouragement for this proposal. While many participated, special thanks go to Yakov Rekhter, John Drake and Rahul Aggarwal. Many thanks too to John for suggesting the use of ASSOCIATION objects. 6. IANA Considerations IANA is requested to assign a new Association Type for MLSP. This Association Type is to be used for ASSOCIATION objects with C-Type 1 (IPv4 Source) and 2 (IPv6 Source). 7. References 7.1. Normative References [RFC 2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC2205] Braden, B., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S., and S. Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) -- Version 1 Functional Specification", RFC2205, September 1997. [RFC3209] Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D., Li, T., Srinivasan, V., and G. Swallow, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels", RFC3209, December 2001. [RFC4875] Aggarwal, R., Papadimitriou, D., and S. Yasukawa, "Extensions to Resource Reservation Protocol - Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) for Point-to-Multipoint TE Label Switched Paths (LSPs)", RFC4875, May 2007. 7.2. Informative References [RFC4655] Farrel, A., Vasseur, J., and J. Ash, "A Path Computation Element (PCE)-Based Architecture", RFC4655, August 2006. [RFC4972] Vasseur, JP., Leroux, JL., Yasukawa, S., Previdi, S., Psenak, P., and P. Mabbey, "Routing Extensions for Discovery of Multiprotocol (MPLS) Label Switch Router (LSR) Traffic Engineering (TE) Mesh Membership", RFC4972, July 2007. Kompella & Hellers Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 11] Internet-Draft Multi-path RSVP-TE LSPs July 2013 [RFC5036] Andersson, L., Minei, I., and B. Thomas, "LDP Specification", RFC5036, October 2007. [RFC5152] Vasseur, JP., Ayyangar, A., and R. Zhang, "A Per-Domain Path Computation Method for Establishing Inter-Domain Traffic Engineering (TE) Label Switched Paths (LSPs)", RFC 5152, February 2008. [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC5226, May 2008. [RFC5286] Atlas, A. and A. Zinin, "Basic Specification for IP Fast Reroute: Loop-Free Alternates", RFC5286, September 2008. [RFC6391] Bryant, S., Filsfils, C., Drafz, U., Kompella, V., Regan, J., and S. Amante, "Flow-Aware Transport of Pseudowires over an MPLS Packet Switched Network", RFC6391, November 2011. [RFC6790] Kompella, K., Drake, J., Amante, S., Henderickx, W., and L. Yong, "The Use of Entropy Labels in MPLS Forwarding", RFC6790, November 2012. Authors' Addresses Kireeti Kompella Juniper Networks 1194 N. Mathilda Ave. Sunnyvale, CA 94089 US Email: email@example.com Mike Hellers LINX Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Kompella & Hellers Expires January 16, 2014 [Page 12]