Content Splicing for RTP Sessions
Author(s): Jinwei Xia
Content splicing is a process that replaces the content of a main multimedia stream with other multimedia content, and delivers the substitutive multimedia content to the receivers for a period of time. Splicing is commonly used for local...
AVTEXT Working Group J. Xia Internet-Draft Huawei Intended status: Informational November 14, 2012 Expires: May 18, 2013 Content Splicing for RTP Sessions draft-ietf-avtext-splicing-for-rtp-13 Abstract Content splicing is a process that replaces the content of a main multimedia stream with other multimedia content, and delivers the substitutive multimedia content to the receivers for a period of time. Splicing is commonly used for local advertisement insertion by cable operators, replacing a national advertisement content with a local advertisement. This memo describes some use cases for content splicing and a set of requirements for splicing content delivered by RTP. It provides concrete guidelines for how an RTP mixer can be used to handle content splicing. Status of this Memo This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." This Internet-Draft will expire on May 18, 2013. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 1] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. System Model and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Requirements for RTP Splicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Content Splicing for RTP sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1. RTP Processing in RTP Mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2. RTCP Processing in RTP Mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.3. Considerations for Handling Media Clipping at the RTP Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.4. Congestion Control Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.5. Considerations for Implementing Undetectable Splicing . . 12 5. Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9. 10. Appendix- Why Mixer Is Chosen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 2] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 1. Introduction This document outlines how content splicing can be used in RTP sessions. Splicing, in general, is a process where part of a multimedia content is replaced with other multimedia content, and delivered to the receivers for a period of time. The substitutive content can be provided for example via another stream or via local media file storage. One representative use case for splicing is local advertisement insertion, allowing content providers to replace the national advertising content with its own regional advertising content prior to delivering the regional advertising content to the receivers. Besides the advertisement insertion use case, there are other use cases in which splicing technology can be applied. For example, splicing a recorded video into a video conferencing session, or implementing a playlist server that stitches pieces of video together. Content splicing is a well-defined operation in MPEG-based cable TV systems. Indeed, the Society for Cable Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE) has created two standards, [SCTE30] and [SCTE35], to standardize MPEG2-TS splicing procedure. SCTE 30 creates a standardized method for communication between advertisements server and splicer, and SCTE 35 supports splicing of MPEG2 transport streams. When using multimedia splicing into the internet, the media may be transported by RTP. In this case the original media content and substitutive media content will use the same time period, but may contain different numbers of RTP packets due to different media codecs and entropy coding. This mismatch may require some adjustments of the RTP header sequence number to maintain consistency. [RFC3550] provides the tools to enabled seamless content splicing in RTP session, but to date there has been no clear guidelines on how to use these tools. This memo outlines the requirements for content splicing in RTP sessions and describes how an RTP mixer can be used to meet these requirements. 2. System Model and Terminology In this document, an intermediary network element, the Splicer handles RTP splicing. The Splicer can receive main content and substitutive content simultaneously, but will send one of them at one point of time. When RTP splicing begins, the splicer sends the substitutive content Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 3] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 to the RTP receiver instead of the main content for a period of time. When RTP splicing ends, the splicer switches back sending the main content to the RTP receiver. A simplified RTP splicing diagram is depicted in Figure 1, in which only one main content flow and one substitutive content flow are given. Actually, the splicer can handle multiple splicing for multiple RTP sessions simultaneously. RTP splicing may happen more than once in multiple time slots during the lifetime of the main RTP stream. The methods how splicer learns when to start and end the splicing is out of scope for this document. +---------------+ | | Main Content +-----------+ | Main RTP |------------->| | Output Content | Content | | Splicer |---------------> +---------------+ ---------->| | | +-----------+ | | Substitutive Content | | +-----------------------+ | Substitutive RTP | | Content | | or | | Local File Storage | +-----------------------+ Figure 1: RTP Splicing Architecture This document uses the following terminologies. Output RTP Stream The RTP stream that the RTP receiver is currently receiving. The content of output RTP stream can be either main content or substitutive content. Main Content The multimedia content that are conveyed in main RTP stream. Main content will be replaced by the substitutive content during splicing. Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 4] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 Main RTP Stream The RTP stream that the splicer is receiving. The content of main RTP stream can be replaced by substitutive content for a period of time. Main RTP Sender The sender of RTP packets carrying the main RTP stream. Substitutive Content The multimedia content that replaces the main content during splicing. The substitutive content can for example be contained in an RTP stream from a media sender or fetched from local media file storage. Substitutive RTP Stream A RTP stream with new content that will replace the content in the main RTP stream. Substitutive RTP stream and main RTP stream are two separate streams. If the substitutive content is provided via substitutive RTP stream, the substitutive RTP Stream must pass through the splicer before the substitutive content is delivered to receiver. Substitutive RTP Sender The sender of RTP packets carrying the substitutive RTP stream. Splicing In Point A virtual point in the RTP stream, suitable for substitutive content entry, typically in the boundary between two independently decodable frames. Splicing Out Point A virtual point in the RTP stream, suitable for substitutive content exist, typically in the boundary between two independently decodable frames. Splicer An intermediary node that inserts substitutive content into main RTP stream. The splicer sends substitutive content to RTP receiver instead of main content during splicing. It is also responsible for processing RTCP traffic between the RTP sender and Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 5] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 the RTP receiver. 3. Requirements for RTP Splicing In order to allow seamless content splicing at the RTP layer, the following requirements must be met. Meeting these will also allow, but not require, seamless content splicing at layers above RTP. REQ-1: The splicer should be agnostic about the network and transport layer protocols used to deliver the RTP streams. REQ-2: The splicing operation at the RTP layer must allow splicing at any point required by the media content, and must not constrain when splicing in or splicing out operations can take place. REQ-3: Splicing of RTP content must be backward compatible with the RTP/ RTCP protocol, associated profiles, payload formats, and extensions. REQ-4: The splicer will modify the content of RTP packets, and thus break the end-to-end security, at a minimum breaking the data integrity and source authentication. If the Splicer is designated to insert substitutive content, it must be trusted, i.e., be in the security context(s) with the main RTP sender, the substitutive RTP sender, and the receivers. If encryption is employed, the splicer commonly must decrypt the inbound RTP packets and re-encrypt the outbound RTP packets after splicing. REQ-5: The splicer should rewrite as necessary and forward RTCP messages (e.g., including packet loss, jitter, etc.) sent from downstream receiver to the main RTP sender or the substitutive RTP sender, and thus allow the main RTP sender or substitutive RTP sender to learn the performance of the downstream receiver when its content is being passed to RTP receiver. In addition, the splicer should rewrite RTCP messages from the main RTP sender or substitutive RTP sender to the receiver. Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 6] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 REQ-6: The splicer must not affect other RTP sessions running between the RTP sender and the RTP receiver, and must be transparent for the RTP sessions it does not splice. REQ-7: The RTP receiver should not be able to detect any splicing points in the RTP stream produced by the splicer on RTP protocol level. For the advertisement insertion use case, it is important to make it difficult for the RTP receiver to detect where an advertisement insertion is starting or ending from the RTP packets, and thus avoiding the RTP receiver from filtering out the advertisement content. This memo only focuses on making the splicing undetectable at the RTP layer. The corresponding processing is depicted in section 4.5. 4. Content Splicing for RTP sessions The RTP specification [RFC3550] defines two types of middlebox: RTP translators and RTP mixers. Splicing is best viewed as a mixing operation. The splicer generates a new RTP stream that is a mix of the main RTP stream and the substitutive RTP stream. An RTP mixer is therefore an appropriate model for a content splicer. In next four subsections (from subsection 4.1 to subsection 4.4), the document analyzes how the mixer handles RTP splicing and how it satisfies the general requirements listed in section 3. In subsection 4.5, the document looks at REQ-7 in order to hide the fact that splicing take place. 4.1. RTP Processing in RTP Mixer A splicer could be implemented as a mixer that receives the main RTP stream and the substitutive content (possibly via a substitutive RTP stream), and sends a single output RTP stream to the receiver(s). That output RTP stream will contain either the main content or the substitutive content. The output RTP stream will come from the mixer, and will have the synchronization source (SSRC) of the mixer rather than the main RTP sender or the substitutive RTP sender. The mixer uses its own SSRC, sequence number space and timing model when generating the output stream. Moreover, the mixer may insert the SSRC of main RTP stream into contributing source (CSRC) list in the output media stream. Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 7] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 At the splicing in point, when the substitutive content becomes active, the mixer chooses the substitutive RTP stream as input stream at splicing in point, and extracts the payload data (i.e., substitutive content). If the substitutive content comes from local media file storage, the mixer directly fetches the substitutive content. After that, the mixer encapsulates substitutive content instead of main content as the payload of the output media stream, and then sends the output RTP media stream to receiver. The mixer may insert the SSRC of substitutive RTP stream into CSRC list in the output media stream. If the substitutive content comes from local media file storage, the mixer should leave the CSRC list blank. At the splicing out point, when the substitutive content ends, the mixer retrieves the main RTP stream as input stream at splicing out point, and extracts the payload data (i.e., main content). After that, the mixer encapsulates main content instead of substitutive content as the payload of the output media stream, and then sends the output media stream to the receivers. Moreover, the mixer may insert the SSRC of main RTP stream into CSRC list in the output media stream as before. Note that if the content is too large to fit into RTP packets sent to RTP receiver, the mixer needs to transcode or perform application- layer fragmentation. Usually the mixer is deployed as part of a managed system and MTU will be carefully managed by this system. This document does not raise any new MTU related issues compared to a standard mixer described in [RFC3550]. Splicing may occur more than once during the lifetime of main RTP stream, this means the mixer needs to send main content and substitutive content in turn with its own SSRC identifier. From receiver point of view, the only source of the output stream is the mixer regardless of where the content is coming from. 4.2. RTCP Processing in RTP Mixer By monitoring available bandwidth and buffer levels and by computing network metrics such as packet loss, network jitter, and delay, RTP receiver can learn the network performance and communicate this to the RTP sender via RTCP reception reports. According to the description in section 7.3 of [RFC3550], the mixer splits the RTCP flow between sender and receiver into two separate RTCP loops, RTP sender has no idea about the situation on the receiver. But splicing is a processing that the mixer selects one media stream from multiple streams rather than mixing them, so the mixer can leave the SSRC identifier in the RTCP report intact (i.e., the SSRC of downstream receiver), this enables the main RTP sender or Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 8] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 the substitutive RTP sender to learn the situation on the receiver. If the RTCP report corresponds to a time interval that is entirely main content or entirely substitutive content, the number of output RTP packets containing substitutive content is equal to the number of input substitutive RTP packets (from substitutive RTP stream) during splicing, in the same manner, the number of output RTP packets containing main content is equal to the number of input main RTP packets (from main RTP stream) during non-splicing unless the mixer fragment the input RTP packets. This means that the mixer does not need to modify the loss packet fields in reception report blocks in RTCP reports. But if the mixer fragments the input RTP packets, it may need to modify the loss packet fields to compensate for the fragmentation. Whether the input RTP packets are fragmented or not, the mixer still needs to change the SSRC field in report block to the SSRC identifier of the main RTP sender or the substitutive RTP sender, and rewrite the extended highest sequence number field to the corresponding original extended highest sequence number before forwarding the RTCP report to the main RTP sender or the substitutive RTP sender. If the RTCP report spans the splicing in point or the splicing out point, it reflects the characteristics of the combination of main RTP packets and substitutive RTP packets. In this case, the mixer needs to divide the RTCP report into two separate RTCP reports and send them to their original RTP senders respectively. For each RTCP report, the mixer also needs to make the corresponding changes to the packet loss fields in report block besides the SSRC field and the extended highest sequence number field. If the mixer receives an RTCP extended report (XR) block, it should rewrite the XR report block in a similar way to the reception report block in the RTCP report. Besides forwarding the RTCP reports sent from RTP receiver, the mixer can also generate its own RTCP reports to inform the main RTP sender or the substitutive RTP sender of the reception quality of the content reaches the mixer when the content is not sent to the RTP receiver. These RTCP reports use the SSRC of the mixer. If the substitutive content comes from local media file storage, the mixer does not need to generate RTCP reports for the substitutive stream. Based on above RTCP operating mechanism, the RTP sender whose content is being passed to receiver will see the reception quality of its stream as received by the mixer, and the reception quality of spliced stream as received by the receiver. The RTP sender whose content is not being passed to receiver will only see the reception quality of its stream as received by the mixer. Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 9] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 The mixer must forward RTCP SDES and BYE packets from the receiver to the sender, and may forward them in inverse direction as defined in section 7.3 of [RFC3550]. Once the mixer receives an RTP/AVPF [RFC4585] transport layer feedback packet, it must handle it carefully as the feedback packet may contain the information of the content that come from different RTP senders. In this case the mixer needs to divide the feedback packet into two separate feedback packets and process the information in the feedback control information (FCI) in the two feedback packets, just as the RTCP report process described above. If the substitutive content comes from local media file storage (i.e., the mixer can be regarded as the substitutive RTP sender), any RTCP packets received from downstream relate to the substitutive content must be terminated on the mixer without any further processing. 4.3. Considerations for Handling Media Clipping at the RTP Layer This section provides informative guidelines on how to handle media substitution at both the RTP layer to minimize media impact. Dealing with the media substitution well at the RTP layer is necessary for quality implementations. To perfectly erase any media impact needs more considerations at the higher layers, how the media substitution is erased at the higher layers are outside of the scope of this memo. If the time duration for any substitutive content mismatches, i.e., shorter or longer, than the duration of the main content to be replaced, then media degradations may occur at the splicing point and thus impact the user's experience. If the substitutive content has shorter duration from the main content, then there could be a gap in the output RTP stream. The RTP sequence number will be contiguous across this gap, but there will be an unexpected jump in the RTP timestamp. Such a gap would cause the receiver to have nothing to play. This may be unavoidable, unless the mixer can adjusts the splice in or splice out point to compensate. This assumes the splicing mixer can send more of the main RTP stream in place of the shorter substitutive stream, or vary the length of the substitutive content. It is the responsibility of the higher layer protocols and the media providers to ensure that the substitutive content is of very similar duration as the main content to be replaced. If the substitute content has longer duration than the reserved gap duration, there will be an overlap between the substitutive RTP stream and the main RTP stream at the splicing out point. A Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 10] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 straightforward approach is that the mixer performs an ungraceful action, terminating the splicing and switching back to main RTP stream even if this may cause media stuttering on receiver. Alternatively, the mixer may transcode the substitutive content to play at a faster rate than normal, to adjust it to the length of the gap in the main content, and generate a new RTP stream for the transcoded content. This is a complex operation, and very specific to the content and media codec used. Additional approaches exists, these types of issues should be taken into account in both mixer implementors and media generators to enable smooth substitutions. 4.4. Congestion Control Considerations If the substitutive content has somewhat different characteristics from the main content it replaces, or if the substitutive content is encoded with a different codec or has different encoding bitrate, it might overload the network and might cause network congestion on the path between the mixer and the RTP receiver(s) that would not have been caused by the main content. To be robust to network congestion and packet loss, a mixer that is performing splicing must continuously monitor the status of downstream network by monitoring any of the following RTCP reports that are used: 1. RTCP receiver reports indicate packet loss [RFC3550]. 2. RTCP NACKs for lost packet recovery [RFC4585]. 3. RTCP ECN Feedback information [RFC6679]. Once the mixer detects congestion on its downstream link, it will treat these reports as follows: 1. If the mixer receives the RTCP receiver reports with packet loss indication, it will forward the reports to the substitutive RTP sender or the main RTP sender as described in section 4.2. 2. If mixer receives the RTCP NACK packets defined in [RFC4585] from RTP receiver for packet loss recovery, it first identifies the content category of lost packets to which the NACK corresponds. Then, the mixer will generate new RTCP NACK for the lost packets with its own SSRC, and make corresponding changes to their sequence numbers to match original, pre-spliced, packets. If the lost substitutive content comes from local media file storage, the mixer acting as substitutive RTP sender will directly fetch the lost substitutive content and retransmit it to RTP receiver. The mixer may buffer the sent RTP packets and do the Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 11] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 retransmission. It is somewhat complex that the lost packets requested in a single RTCP NACK message not only contain the main content but also the substitutive content. To address this, the mixer must divide the RTCP NACK packet into two separate RTCP NACK packets: one requests for the lost main content, and another requests for the lost substitutive content. 3. If an ECN-aware mixer receives RTCP ECN feedbacks (RTCP ECN feedback packets or RTCP XR summary reports) defined in [RFC6679] from the RTP receiver, it must process them in a similar way to the RTP/AVPF feedback packet or RTCP XR process described in section 4.2 of this memo. These three methods require the mixer to run a congestion control loop and bitrate adaptation between itself and RTP receiver. The mixer can thin or transcode the main RTP stream or the substitutive RTP stream, but such operations are very inefficient and difficult, and bring undesirable delay. Fortunately in this memo, the mixer acting as splicer can rewrite the RTCP packets sent from the RTP receiver and forward them to the RTP sender, thus letting the RTP sender knows that congestion is being experienced on the path between the mixer and the RTP receiver. Then, the RTP sender applies its congestion control algorithm and reduces the media bitrate to a value that is in compliance with congestion control principles for the slowest link. The congestion control algorithm may be a TCP-friendly bitrate adaptation algorithm specified in [RFC5348], or a DCCP congestion control algorithms defined in [RFC5762]. If the substitutive content comes from local media file storage, the mixer must directly reduce the bitrate as if it were the substitutive RTP sender. From above analysis, to reduce the risk of congestion and remain the bandwidth consumption stable over time, the substitutive RTP stream is recommended to be encoded at an appropriate bitrate to match that of main RTP stream. If the substitutive RTP stream comes from the substitutive RTP sender, this sender had better has some knowledge about the media encoding bitrate of main content in advance. How it knows that is out of scope in this draft. 4.5. Considerations for Implementing Undetectable Splicing If it is desirable to prevent receivers from detecting that splicing is occurring at the RTP layer, the mixer must not include a CSRC list in outgoing RTP packets, and must not forward RTCP messages from the main RTP sender or from the substitutive RTP sender. Due to the Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 12] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 absence of CSRC list in the output RTP stream, the RTP receiver only initiates SDES, BYE and APP packets to the mixer without any knowledge of the main RTP sender and the substitutive RTP sender. CSRC list identifies the contributing sources, these SSRC identifiers of contributing sources are kept globally unique for each RTP session. The uniqueness of SSRC identifier is used to resolve collisions and detecting RTP-level forwarding loops as defined in section 8.2 of [RFC3550]. The absence of CSRC list in this case will create a danger that loops involving those contributing sources could not be detected. The loops could occur if either the mixer is misconfigured to form a loop, or a second mixer/translator is added, causing packets to loop back to upstream of the original mixer. An undetected RTP packet loop is a serious denial of service threat, which can consume all available bandwidth or mixer processing resources until the looped packets are dropped as result of congestion. So Non-RTP means must be used to detect and resolve loops if the mixer does not add a CSRC list. 5. Implementation Considerations When the mixer is used to handle RTP splicing, RTP receiver does not need any RTP/RTCP extension for splicing. As a trade-off, additional overhead could be induced on the mixer which uses its own sequence number space and timing model. So the mixer will rewrite RTP sequence number and timestamp whatever splicing is active or not, and generate RTCP flows for both sides. In case the mixer serves multiple main RTP streams simultaneously, this may lead to more overhead on the mixer. If undetectable splicing requirement is required, CSRC list is not included in outgoing RTP packet, this brings a potential issue with loop detection as briefly described in section 4.5. 6. Security Considerations The splicing application is subject to the general security considerations of the RTP specification [RFC3550]. The mixer acting as splicer replaces some content with other content in RTP packets, thus breaking any RTP level end-to-end security, such as integrity protection and source authentication. Thus any RTP level or outside security mechanism, such as IPSec or DTLS will use a security association between the splicer and the receiver. When using SRTP the splicer could be provisioned with the same security association as the main RTP sender. Using a limitation in the SRTP Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 13] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 security services regarding source authentication, the splicer can modify and re-protect the RTP packets without enabling the receiver to detect if the data comes from the original source or from the splicer. Security goals to have source authentication all the way from the RTP main sender to the receiver through the splicer is not possible with splicing and any existing solutions. A new solution can theoretically be developed that enables identifying the participating entities and what each provides, i.e. the different media sources, main and substituting, and the splicer providing the RTP level integration of the media payloads in a common timeline and synchronization context. Such a solution would obviously not meet Req-7 and will be detectable on RTP level. The nature of this RTP service offered by a network operator employing a content splicer is that the RTP layer security relationship is between the receiver and the splicer, and between the senders and the splicer, are not end-to-end. This appears to invalidate the undetectability goal, but in the common case the receiver will consider the splicer as the main media source. Some RTP deployments use RTP payload security mechanisms (e.g., ISMACryp [ISMACryp]). If any payload internal security mechanisms are used, only the RTP sender and the RTP receiver establish that security context, in which case, any middlebox (e.g., splicer) between the RTP sender and the RTP receiver will not get such keying material. This may impact the splicer's possibility to perform splicing if it is dependent on RTP payload level hints for finding the splice in and out points. However, other potential solutions exist to specify or mark where the splicing points exist in the media streams. When using RTP payload security mechanisms SRTP or other security mechanism at RTP or lower layers can be used to provide integrity and source authentication between the splicer and the RTP receiver. 7. IANA Considerations No IANA actions are required. 8. Acknowledgments The following individuals have reviewed the earlier versions of this specification and provided very valuable comments: Colin Perkins, Magnus Westerlund, Roni Even, Tom Van Caenegem, Joerg Ott, David R Oran, Cullen Jennings, Ali C Begen, Charles Eckel and Ning Zong. Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 14] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 9. 10. Appendix- Why Mixer Is Chosen Translator and mixer both can realize splicing by changing a set of RTP parameters. Translator has no SSRC, hence it is transparent to RTP sender and receiver. Therefore, RTP sender sees the full path to the receiver when translator is passing its content. When translator insert the substitutive content RTP sender could get a report on the path up to translator itself. Additionally, if splicing does not occur yet, translator does not need to rewrite RTP header, the overhead on translator can be avoided. If mixer is used to do splicing, it can also allow RTP sender to learn the situation of its content on receiver or on mixer just like translator does, which is specified in section 4.2. Compared to translator, mixer's outstanding benefit is that it is pretty straight forward to do with RTCP messages, for example, bit-rate adaptation to handle varying network conditions. But translator needs more considerations and its implementation is more complex. From above analysis, both translator and mixer have their own advantages: less overhead or less complexity on handling RTCP. Through long and sophisticated discussion, the avtext WG members prefer less complexity rather than less overhead and incline to mixer to do splicing. If one chooses mixer as splicer, the overhead on mixer must be taken into account even if the splicing does not occur yet. 10. References 10.1. Normative References [RFC3550] Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V. Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", STD 64, RFC3550, July 2003. [RFC4585] Ott, J., Wenger, S., Sato, N., Burmeister, C., and J. Rey, "Extended RTP Profile for Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)-Based Feedback (RTP/AVPF)", RFC4585, July 2006. [RFC6679] Westerlund, M., Johansson, I., Perkins, C., O'Hanlon, P., and K. Carlberg, "Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) for RTP over UDP", RFC6679, August 2012. Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 15] Internet-Draft RTP splicing November 2012 10.2. Informative References [RFC3711] Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K. Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)", RFC3711, March 2004. [RFC5348] Floyd, S., Handley, M., Padhye, J., and J. Widmer, "TCP Friendly Rate Control (TFRC): Protocol Specification", RFC5348, September 2008. [RFC5762] Perkins, C., "RTP and the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)", RFC5762, April 2010. [SCTE30] Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE), "Digital Program Insertion Splicing API", 2009. [SCTE35] Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE), "Digital Program Insertion Cueing Message for Cable", 2011. [ISMACryp] Internet Streaming Media Alliance (ISMA), "ISMA Encryption and Authentication Specification 2.0", November 2007. Author's Address Jinwei Xia Huawei Software No.101 Nanjing, Yuhuatai District 210012 China Phone: +86-025-86622310 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Xia Expires May 18, 2013 [Page 16]